Parts of Speech: Adverb
An adverb is a word which modifies or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb or any other words or phrases in the sentence such as quickly, firmly, lightly, carefully, extremely etc.
- The leopard runs quickly. ( Here quickly modifies the verb)
- He works extremely hard. (here extremely modifies the adverb)
- Most of our countrymen are very poor. (Here very modifies the adjective)
- I absolutely have idea about the matter.
Function of adverb in a sentence:
Adverb adds information and impression about time, manner, place etc. in a sentence.
Form of Adverbs:
Many adverbs those express how an action is performed are end in ‘ly’. But many others like fast, well, never, least, more, far, now, very, just, still etc.
Kinds of Adverbs:
There are different kinds of adverb according to their functions in a sentence.
i. Adverbs of Time: Indicate the time of an action and answer the question ‘when’?
Such as now, soon, still, then, today, yet, since, back, ago, already, before, after, recently, today, lately, tomorrow, once, someday, early etc.
- I have already finished my job.
- I will do it now.
- The result will be published tomorrow.
ii. Adverbs of Manner: Express the manner of an action and answer the question ‘How’?
Such as happily, slowly, quickly, carefully, loudly, easily, fast, bravely, hard, well, badly etc.
- Rafat is speaking quietly.
- He is doing the job carefully.
- The boy is crying loudly.
iii. Adverbs of Place: Indicate the place of an action and answer the question ‘Where’?
Such as here, there, up, down, in, out, by, hither, thither, where, anywhere, somewhere, everywhere, nowhere etc.
- Go out.
- I love to be here.
- People still live there.
iv. Adverbs of Degree or Quantity: Express quantity and answer the question ‘How much/ How far/ to what extent’?
Such as extremely, fully, quite, almost, very much, too, a lot, totally, absolutely, fairly, hardly, rather etc.
- He is quite wrong.
- She is fully cured.
- He is bad enough to kill you.
v. Adverbs of Affirmation and negation: Indicate assertion and express the one’s reaction to question.
Such as yes, no, yeah
- Yes, I can.
- No, she isn’t.
vi. Adverbs of Frequency: Express the frequency of an action and answer the question “How often”?
Such as never, ever, always, often, seldom, everyday, sometimes, usually, normally, frequently, rarely, hardly, scarcely, once a week etc.
- He always helps the poor.
- The barking dog seldom bites.
vii. Adverbs of reason: Express the reason and make the conclusion.
Such as hence, therefore, thence etc.
Example: - He therefore resigned the job.
Conjunctive adverb is used to join two clauses together.
Such as also, finally, furthermore, consequently, hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, nevertheless, meanwhile, next, nonetheless, otherwise, then, still, thus and therefore.
N.B: Conjunctive Adverb joins two independent clauses with a semi-colon.
- The people waited for an hour; finally the train comes to the station.
- The police men searched the market; indeed the gunman has escaped through the basement door.
Position of Adverb:
General positions of adverbs are as follows:
i. Adverbs of time usually come at the end of a sentence or at the beginning of sentence.
- It may rain today.
- Last night I dreamt a sweet dream.
ii. Adverbs of place usually follow the verb.
- The doctor is in.
- They were everywhere.
iii. Adverbs of Degree or Quantity come before the verb, adjective or adverb.
- He is fairly good.
- You are quite wrong.
- He can run very fast